CASE STUDY #1
Hydrogen Commodity: Synthetic Fuel
In 1935, a demonstration plant built in Leaside (Toronto) Ontario operated for the purpose of electrolysing water into hydrogen and oxygen, with the oxygen being applied with steam to the continuous gasification of solid hydrocarbon fuel (peat).
- It was North America’s first continuous gasifier as well as an improved method of manufacturing “Town Gas” (CO + H2)
- With the addition of the electrolytic hydrogen, the Town Gas became Synthesis Gas (CO + 2H2).
- Synthesis gas can be used to manufacture synthetic chemicals such as methanol, gasoline, DME and other high value hydrocarbons – a novel idea at the time.
CASE STUDY #2
Hydrogen Commodity: Transportation Fuel
On-site electrolytic hydrogen fuel production from electricity at night – distributed all the way down to a bus terminal
- Displaces fossil fuel use on the road
- Load shifts electricity to non-peak times vs. use of electric trollies at peak hours
- Hydrogen storage equates to electricity storage function, but with far higher range and economic life (100,000 plus cycles full to empty; much lighter weight; smaller)
This process is illustrated in the diagram below.
CASE STUDY #3
Hydrogen Commodity: Industrial Chemical
On-site electrolytic hydrogen production consumes electricity 21 hours a day. It produces hydrogen and oxygen to make hydrogen peroxide as well as “3 hours” of a stored hydrogen reserve.
- During the 3 electricity peak hours, hydrogen peroxide production continues only by using the “stored hydrogen” and oxygen from the air.
- Demand Side Management system effectively stores 50 MWh of electricity as hydrogen while shaving peak demand by 15 MW.
- A global commodity – hydrogen peroxide – is produced which can be stored, used directly, or shipped globally.
CASE STUDY #4
Hydrogen Commodity: Direct Reduction of Iron Ore
Iron is reduced utilizing green hydrogen, as opposed to using coal and coke that produce CO2 during the process traditionally. The process makes sponge iron that, mixed with scrap, becomes crude steel.
- The process does not consume the all the hydrogen required and allows it to be used for other applications.
- Provides an energy storage component to the process.
- Sponge Iron made from process can be mixed with scrap to produce crude steel. Nickel can be used to make stainless steel.
- Greatly reduces environmental burden of steel production.
- This process was demonstrated by A.T. Stuart in 1935.